Archaeological inventory survey (Phase I) is conducted where the results of background research suggest that archaeological resources may be present in the project area. A pedestrian survey is conducted (sometimes in tandem with limited subsurface probes) to identify archaeological remains, and the results of the survey are used to recommend further investigations or mitigation measures, if necessary. If a survey is negative, often no further cultural resources work is required. If a survey is positive, then further work, such as construction monitoring, may be required. Often a second phase of work (Phase II) follows a positive survey to test resources for their research potential and historical significance. Testing provides the detailed information necessary to plan mitigation measures to protect a site. If a project will have adverse impacts on a significant site, data recovery excavations (Phase III) may be necessary to as a mitigation measure to recover important information.
CRMS provides flexible archaeological monitoring services during construction to identify potentially significant finds. Our staff monitors are experienced in working with construction crews and Native American/Hawaiian observers, and are familiar with all state safety regulations.
CRMS staff can prepare cultural resource-related information for the most common types of environmental documents required under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) as well as other statutes. This includes CEQA Environmental Impact Reports (EIR), Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements (EA/EIS), Section 106 technical reports, and compliance documentation necessary under federal, state, and local regulations.
CRMS is experienced in evaluating cultural resources as part of the Section 106 review and consultation process. Evaluation involves research, development of a historic context, and application of eligibility criteria to determine if a resource is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. Eligible resources, known as historic properties, must be taken into consideration when a project is undertaken, funded, or permitted by a federal agency. Mitigation measures will be required if impacts to historic properties cannot be avoided.
Working under applicable federal, state, and local requirements, CRMS will design a detailed plan for mitigating adverse effects to significant cultural resources, and provide support for consultation with agencies and Native American tribes. If data recovery excavations are required, the plan will include a research design outlining how a specific site or group of sites will be investigated and the specific research questions to be addressed.
Archival research includes thorough investigation of libraries, archives, and government data files to collect, summarize, and interpret historic records containing information relevant to a particular project area. Oral history involves finding and interviewing individuals who possess knowledge and experience that is relevant to a particular location or time period. CRMS has extensive experience in conducting oral histories and are recognized for providing high quality research services to our clients in California, Hawaii, and the Pacific Basin.